Monthly Archives: October 2012

Leuku: Part Two by Pasi Hurttila

One makers thoughts on leuku, “stuorra niibi”, a large saami type knife by Pasi Hurttila

“For most Finnish people the word leuku brings immediately a large Lappish knife to mind. That’s correct, as that is what a leuku is, a large knife originally from northern parts of Scandinavia. Clear characteristics of a leuku are full pommel, straight handle, relatively high blade which is not really pointed and not tapering lower in height towards the tip. Spine can be straight or bit curved/drop point.

Some people are really strict on what is a leuku and what’s not. For me it’s clear, if I see a knife I can tell immediately if it’s a leuku or not in my opinion. There are not any exact standards on that. For example I’ve seen a picture of full-tang leuku made by Pekka Tuominen, and for me that clearly can be called a leuku, even if there’s no historical example found like that. Tradition itself is an on-going thing, it doesn’t stop on some certain age, even leukus and their design can still get some new winds in the design. Without forgetting the tradition of course.

Of leukus size and style you can see that it’s clearly meant for hitting. Also it served as a kind of all-rounder, tasks varying from splitting and batoning wood to skinning and gutting animals, all-round camp knife. Saami people also had a smaller knife, “unna niibas”, the size of a common puukko, for smaller tasks like whittling etc. So a leuku clearly hasn’t been a whittler or a carver, which can be seen already by the size of it.

Traditionally materials used on leukus were wood (birch or sallow), reindeer antler/bone and reindeer hide. Blades were made out of any suitable carbon steel that could be found. Brass was used on bolsters and rivets if available. Blade length could vary from 15 up to 24cm. Usually blades have been relatively thin, less than 4 mm. A thin blade was enough for cutting timber of tundra area. Grind types varied too, depending what maker thought was useful.

Decorations and amount of them varied among the makers. Some preferred more of them, and some were even specialized in bone carvings. But the same goes with leukus as with all types of knives; there are really decorated collectors items, simple everyman users, and everything between.

Nowadays handmade leukus and blades vary a lot from each other. Thickness can be from 3 up to 6mm. Grinds can be almost any types, from convex to scandi, with possibly secondary bevels. And as well as in history, some makers do really beautifully carved ones, and some make simple style users. All materials can be used, from reindeer antler to kydex, a leuku is still a leuku.

In northern Lapland, where I live, leukus can be seen in use still. But most likely on the waist of a woodsman you’ll see a smaller puukko, with 10cm or shorter blade, accompanied with an axe in a backpack. But anyway it’s pretty common to see people carrying leukus still here, especially in winter time.

I personally use leuku in several tasks. In willow grouse trapping in winter time, you need to cut lot’s of birch twigs when setting traps, and that’s where a leuku is really useful. In cleaning large fresh or dried hides a larger blade is useful too. Also in pruning and barking poles etc.

My ideal leuku is pretty basic user; curly birch handle with brass bolsters, about 5mm thick blade in 20-23cm lenght. 26-28 degree scandi grind with small secondary bevel,  basic high leather sheath with traditional type choking belt hanger. 5mm thick blade gives bit more power, which is needed in batoning and splitting. Adding of course the weight a bit, but like in many things: to gain something is to lose something. All compromises.

After all a leuku has something what every good item must have; a soul. For me it gives an image of old times, wilderness, living in nature, Lappish scenery etc…. which all have a meaning for me too in one way or another.

Like I wrote in the beginning, some thoughts on a leuku. Exact historical things and knife details I leave for them who have studied them and know them better than I do.”

Here are some of Pasi’s  leukus made at his shop in Ivalo, Finland. To see more of his work please visit his website at: http://www.hurttilanpaja.suntuubi.com/?cat=1

The first leuku was made for me by Pasi and shows his very high degree of skill and craftsmanship. This is a beautiful leuku that rises above just being a knife or a tool and definitely has the “soul” that Pasi speaks of.

Hurttila Leuku

Hurttila Leuku 2

Pasi Hurttila

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Leuku: Part One

The leuku is a traditional knife of the Sami culture of Lapland, it is also called “stuorra niibi” which means big knife. I will be making two posts about the leuku, the first one with a brief description, some photos and an account of his experience with the leuku by Thomas (edgepal)  from Northern Sweden. The second post is an excellent essay written by Pasi Hurttila, a puukkoseppä from Ivalo, Finland.

In my correspondence with Federico Buldrini he states “It’s believed that leukus were developed by Sami people, starting from the Viking seaxes and väkipuukkos (in Finland). These knives, together with steel working techniques, arrived in Scandinavian and Baltic peninsula after the Migration Period, 400-700 A.D.” and the leuku has evolved to suit their needs, from chopping down small trees, clearing brush and splitting firewood to butchering and preparing reindeer.

The leuku has a wide blade about 8 or 9 inches long usually of carbon steel which holds up better in the cold climate. The handle is generally birch with a wide flat pommel at the end that gives added force when struck with the free hand. It also helps in taking the leuku out of the sheath with gloves or mittens on.

Sometimes a small piece of bone may be inserted in the handle as a rattle, a measure to keep evil spirits away. The bolsters are brass and the tang extends all the way through the handle. The tuppi or sheath is leather, usually from reindeer and is very deep covering almost all of the knife. There may be simple decoration on the sheath.

The leuku is a multi purpose tool. There are several smiths making leukus and they are available from some of the manufacturers of Nordic knives such as Strømeng http://www.samekniv.no/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=52&Itemid=67. They are popular for use among those who like to hike and camp in the forests, “bushcrafting” as well as the reindeer herders.

Here is a very nice custom made leuku by puukkoseppä Mikko Inkeroinen. See more of Mikko’s fine work at his website   http://seppainkeroinen.net/  

From correspondence with Thomas (edgepal):

“I lived with the Sami people for 20 years in the high Mountains (alps) of Sweden. My wife was Sami and her parents and 6 brothers were living the traditional Sami life and life style. I lived in the mountains with her relatives for 6 months every year and two of my three sons work with reindeer today.

During my years in the mountains I carried a Sami type knife belt with two knives, one normal sized Sami knife and one “huggare” also called a chopper or Leuku. Leuku is a Finish name for a huggare and it is used only in Finland. They also are named “Lapphuggare”,  Sami chopper in Sweden and Norway.

The chopper is a working knife, made for hard work and I have used choppers a lot in my life – and I still do, but now I do not make shelters and so on – I walk home instead to a warm fire, a good whisky and a loving wife. That is much more comfortable in my age. Choppers, leuku or huggare is a very special type of knife, it is not just another knife. It is designed for arctic use by a nomadic people. Every part of the complete knife is designed for just this. I know that today’s knife makers make their own design of them, but in my mind, those knives are not a huggare, it is something else. Perhaps a sort of Bowie?

A leuku, as all old traditional knives, are designed from the need of them in first hand,  and then from the real using of them during a very long time. Every generation changed the leuku’s basic design so it functioned a little better,  until there was no reason to change it any more, the function was 100% effective. That was some hundreds of years ago.

There is many reasons behind the design we see today on a “standard” leuku. It is a 100% functional design for what it shall perform in just that climate. The balance, the blade length, the handle material, the knob – every small detail is important for its use.

A good huggare shall have a big knob on the handle. It is necessary in the arctic climate and this knob is used in many ways depending on what I am chopping, big branches or small branches  birch or pine branches – or if I split wood, or build a shelter. Sometimes I hold my chopper just with the little finger and let the rest of the handle slide inside my hand and all the rest of my fingers just steer the huggare so I hit exactly what I like to hit. For example tiny branches in a bush, and for that job the knob is very important, if there was no knob  the knife will slide out of your hand, especially when it is wet and cold and during the winter. And of course, when you have chopped like that for 2-3 hour your hand will be very tired.

No metal pieces on the handle in the arctic climate, that is very important when the temperature goes below minus 30 centigrade. I hate thin blades that “vibrates”on huggare. That is why I make my own huggare, 5 mm thick blade, 20-22 cm long blade, about 25mm wide blade, convex edge in about 26-30 degrees,  and it works like a dream, at least for me.

When living with knives as your only tools, you see what happens to the edges during time. Years ago I started to think about a sort of sharpening tool that will give a locked angle – and when I became older I had the time to construct tools from those thoughts. Today that is EdgePal sharpening tools and you can find them on my homepage:  http://www.edgepal.com/ where there is also a page in English.

If you search at http://www.britishblades.com/forums/forumdisplay.php?41-Scandinavian-Blades…  you will find a lot of things written about huggare/leuku. I have written some things, search for topics by ‘edgepal’.”

Thomas

Thomas’s leuku, huggare, or chopper.

A Visit To Finland by Federico Buldrini

This blog post is about a road trip that Federico Buldrini made this past summer driving  for something like 3660 km, that is 2270 miles. He left his home in Modena in Northern Italy and flew to Stockholm, then traveled on through Sweden and Norway before reaching his destination in the far north of Finland at the smithy of Pasi Hurttila, in Lappland north of the Arctic Circle.

  http://www.hurttilanpaja.suntuubi.com/

I enjoyed Federico’s account of the trip and the pictures he took so much  that I asked him if he would post them here.  He graciously agreed and what follows is his account of a visit to Finland. Thank you Federico!

“Here is a short report of a longer trip I made on late August together with my brother and a friend. — F.B.”

28 August 2012

After a good night sleep we leave the hostel in Riksgränsen and drive east towards Karesuando, on a part of the E45 still to be completed, with dirt road without asphalt for around 20 kms. All the morning goes in driving, but after lunch we pass the border with Finland that cuts Karesuando right in two. Here we meet warmer and autumnal colours than in Sweden and Norway. We go in the direction toward Inari on a dirt road, in the company of reindeer, birches and pines.


Inari, the lake. Green islands on deep blue water. Near a pier is moored a red and white float plane. We take off for Ivalo, 30 km south from Inari.

It’s already evening when we arrive at Pasi’s place. We take a look at his smithy. Belt sander and canvas wheel on the left, charcoal forge and anvil straight ahead, hammers, screwdrivers, files and drill to the right, antlers on the ceiling.


We enter his house and I see that his working table is inside, no workshop, just house and smithy. Everything else is in his hands and skills.

29 August 2012

After breakfast I watch Pasi while he sews a puukko sheath. A few holes at a time with a awl mounted on a moose antler piece, two needles and double stitching. All the leather forming and decorations are made with a moose shin bone shaped on purpose for the job.

After lunch we go for a trip in the wilderness area dominated by the Sarmitunturi fell. We’re about 10 km from Russian border, it’s a bear area and so Pasi takes his Sako 75, you never know. We walk on a carpet of moss, lichens and blueberries, pines around us.

We’re near the top and we stop at a camp site for a tea. When we arrive on the top of the fell we have tundra all around us and few small lakes in front of us. On the top of the fell is a shabby Russian watch tower.

While we made our way back home the sun kept us company playing through the trees.

30 August 2012

In the morning we visit the Guesthouse Husky  http://www.guesthousehusky.fi/  where Lea, Pasi’s girlfriend, works.
In the winter the farm organizes sleds trip for tourists and Pasi sometimes works as a guide, as he did full time, when he was still a hobbyist blacksmith.
The apartments were built a couple of years ago, but the farm has existed for 20 years.

The farm is a junction between an hostel and camping, since it has rooms, but you’re right over the forest. You have all together a house room with moss and pine scent right outside, just a glass between.

In the guesthouse there are few very nice rooms with bathroom, a common kitchen, a sauna, free wi-fi, bike and ski rental. All the interior is permeated by pine tar smell.

The owners are really cheerful and helping people. In front of the guesthouse there is the hut to store sledges.

The dogs are kept in single clearings, with their own bed and place where they can move around. Rasmus is one of the usual pack leaders.

Even if kept on the chain for obvious reasons I don’t see a dog with sad eyes, on the contrary all very spry.

In the afternoon we take the canoes and go to lake Inari for a paddle. The plan is to arrive at one island with campsite and then go to the top of the island to take a look around. After about 2,5 hours we take land and set up camp.

Pasi chops firewood, batons kindling and we carve spoons and spatulas  while tea is warming up. A hot tea in excellent company, what else to desire?

After the tea we climb up and take a look over the placid lake. Lake Inari is actually frozen for almost 8 months a year and you can normally ski on it, rather than canoeing.

On the way back the wind rises and pushes our breath down the throat. We put more effort on the row and slowly conquer the meters. The paddle bounds you to your work, even if you’re tired and want to rest, you keep on pushing the oar as you know that THAT is your duty. The canoe won’t proceed if only the helmsman conducts and to get out of the wind you have to do your part.

I feel bit tired, the shoulders muscles start to ache but, as I tell Pasi, I wouldn’t want to be anywhere else. We finally get out of the wind and we can take a quick rest on a small island. The sun has started his set when we finally reach the pier, bit tired but happy. A good dinner, a night sleep and everything is fine again.

31 August 2012

Today I have the opportunity to see Pasi at work. After having forged 40 nails, for an order of 200, he shows me the forging of a flat puukko blade. All the forging is done with a 1,5 kg hammer on a 85 kg anvil.

He takes a bar of silversteel and flattens it, then he starts to forge the tang on the anvil horn, so the steel stretches evenly, and blade’s shoulders on the edge of the anvil,

then he cuts the steel bar with angle grinder, he can do it also with a steel wedge, but he would have to heat the bar again only for it and the angle grinder gives same result, after that he hammers the blade shape…


this done he starts to forge bevels and when he is satisfied he stamps the blade…

then kneels down to finish bevels forging and have a better sight of steel reaction.

After that he gives the last blows,

cleans it with a brush

and checks that it is straight

After 20 minutes, from heating the bar to stop, the blade is forged and ready for quick sanding before heat treatment.

Pasi takes off the gloves, starts the belt sander at low speed and polishes a bit the bevels, marks bit more the shoulders and cleans the spine, cooling the blade in the water a few times during process. It doesn’t take more than 2-3 minutes, anyway.

At this point Pasi tells me to close the door of the smithy to create more shadow, so steel colours can be seen better. He put the blade into the forge again, took it out when it was cherry red and left it finally to cool at room temperature. Annealing is done.

Then he extinguishes the forge fire and we go to drink something. The rest of heat treatment will be done on the forge in the following days. Pasi usually quenches in oil and gives two or three temperings to the blade. He doesn’t use ovens for treatments and doesn’t have will to. He doesn’t have interest to use ovens, rather to keep traditional ways.

The evening is the last of our time together and we pass it talking and drinking. The next day we would have to start our way back to Italy.

A leuku by Pasi Hurttila.